viernes, 31 de enero de 2014

Censorship fuels satyre and inspiration



Latin American chapter of the  book “ Zones of Silence” ,published by Joe Szabo of Wittyworld – Cartoonists Rights´ Network- The Prince Claus Fundation ( Netherland)

By Ana von Rebeur


Latin America is passing a controversial process in the last decades.
Humor publications that once held the honour of being a stronghold of truth and freedom against military dictatoriships during the ´70s and ¨80´s , dissapeared after the becoming of democratic governments in  most of these countries. At first glance, this fact could be taken as good news: freedom is now so common that those strongholds are not longer needed. Unfortunately, it is not so .
The sad truth is that cartoons are now considered a lesser art. Its contents became empoverished, getting naive and harmless, due to the constant vigilance of editors, who make clear that they prefer a kind of childish and empty humor, to humor that points out real social or political problems. Irony and satire are rejected on a daily basis. In most of Latin American countries, so called democratic goverments are turning themselves into absolutist dictatorships. Presidents are obsessed with changing the Constitutions in order to extend presidency periods or trying to be candidates for next elections, to perpetuate themselves in power…amost forever . They change the members of the Supreme Court, putting judges that will obbey their orders, and they much more prone to take decisions that will benefit big investors than to take much needed ( and promised) social measures. The only social measure is “ asssistencialism”  by giving not jobs nor education , but poor wages to poor families ( extra salary  per each newborn and jobless sons or daughters) in a way in which the vast majorities of poor population gets money by doing nothing, therefore are willing to vote for the same system again and again.
Cartoonists are victims of these greedy systems .Newspapers and magazines are not interested in using cartoons as a true way of expression. Therefore, cartoonists  don´t draw what they would like to draw , but only what they know it will be accepted .Most of them send their best cartoons to contests and exhibitions abroad, because they are “ unprintable·” in their own countries.
This need to express themselves  away from press circuits have resulted in the development of huge cartoon festivals in Brazil, some of them  not casually being born after the fall of the military dictatorship, two decades ago. The rest of the cartoonists take an active participation in cartoon contests abroad . Militar dictorships took cartoons so seriously that it prosecuted their uthors.Democratic governments let this art die by indifference, maybe also by the fear of the iconoclastic power of humor.  
In most of Latin American countries censorship is subtle and hidden. It is not much noted by cartoonists who are “ inside” the system. Most of them already know the editorial line of newspapers and magazines, and they don´t risk to make cartoons that may be rejected. They do recognize that they cannot make fun of embassadors or diplomats, drugs, abortion, clergy, nor draw polititians in the shape of animals ( this is subject to rproblems everywhere). They also must avoid doing cartoons that may bother the customers who pay advertising. Goverments not only buy advertising, but also sell press paper or are the owners of the media, thus granting editorial line will favour them.
Empoverishment of inhabitants of these countries make newspapers and magazines to depend not on the meager sales of their publicatoions, but on the adversing only. Therefore, Latin American cartoonists are victims of economical censorship. Generally speaking, they may make cartoons about intrenational news, but not of local matters. Needing to know what is the editorial line that the publisher will accept- be it explicit or implicit – there is no freedom of expression. This constant vigilance over their creations leads to an active self-censorship that only few cartoonists are able to recognize.
New generations of cartoonists are hopeless. Publishers don´t dare to contract new talents in cartoonism. They´d rather stick to the old ones,- who know the tacit rules, are tamed and reliable, and always speak of general, “harmless” issues.. Therefore, there is virtually no future for young cartoonists. Young artists express themselves in blogs, websites, animations and fanzines, which are bought by themselves, in a quantity rounding 300 – 500 issues , no more than that.
Famous cartoonists are working steady for big newspapers during 30- 50 years. Some of them in the biggest newspapers recognize the lack of freedom of expression. Many of them are only replaced by their sons. Their style is either innocent or surrealistically absurd, far from being critical eye –openers. It doesn’t mean they don´t know how to be satirical. They just cannot do it any more. 
In adition to the problem, general cultural level of Latinoamerican readers got empovireshed in the last decades, with goverments who send meager expenditures to culture or educational national budgets. As a result of it, cartoonists feel thay cannot send too subtle messages because they risk not being understood by the common reader.
In Uruguay, though cartoonists may generate controversies  and opinions in the readers,  “ we still cannot  get any respect from the media”-  Tunda Prada says. Uruguayan cartoonist Raquel Orzuj  also says : “Editorial guidelines clashes against creativity and frustrates the artists in a no-win situation: if the artists is bored, the reader gets bored.”
In Brazil and Uruguay, cartoonists feel free to express themselves because they can now make cartoons that would be unthinkable 20 years ago. But some cartoonists see this as a warning sign : “We are no longer a menace,because people don´t get the message . They just smile at our cartoons, but they don’t care about the real problem, nor think about making a change. They are under   anesthesia. Corruption is not longer a scandal: it is a banal word , that tuned into an old joke here ” ( Renato Alarcao)  Eduardo Baptistao  (“Estado de Sao Paulo”) says that only a few cartoonists in Brazil ar so respected as to be able to impose their work in an uncensored way.
Censorship situations were suffered everywhere. Jose Alberto Lovetro  ( Jal) was censored many times in the lates 80´s , for making cartoons on corruption cases or making fun of the Sao Paulo City major “ because he was a friend of the nespaper´s owner´s cardiologist “., Jal thinks that the cartoonists´ voice  acts as a kind of thermometer of the peoples´will and wishes . In the same year Jal was awarded with Vladimir Herzog award  for Human Rights( Vladimir Herzog was a journalists killed by the dictatorship) for his cartoons on elections after dictatorship.
Brazilian cartoonist Mauricio Pestana says that “speaking about freedom of expresion in Brazil is  like speaking of it in Irak, Iran or Afganistan” .”Cartoons where the only way to denounce torture, crime and violation of human right during dictatorship. “ , Pestana adds , “ All of a sudden, after the end of dictatorship, the right to denounce was rejected , and  I began to hear everywhere the phrase “this matter  doesn´t belong to our editorial line”  When I dared to make a joke on one presidential candidate, I was called by the newspaper´s owner and the editor in chief  who told me “this newspaper is not a place to do propaganda of your political party” . And I didn´t belong to any political party . The cartoonist creaction depends on his place in society , therefore  what is the truth for me , may not be seen by another one , and that  affects my freedom . As a black cartoonist, I fought against preconceptions like drawing the robber always as a black man. When I draw the thief as a white man, they say I am being a racist.”
Santiago (Neltair Rebbes Abreu) is a Brazilian cartoonist  who wrote in “O Pasquim” humor newspaper of March 2004 the fact that the cartoon by  Eduardo Felipe, winner of the  Salão Carioca de Humor ( Humor Salon of Rio de Janeiro) was censored by the same Salon who awarded it  and by O Globo newspaper ( the biggest in Brazil) . The reason was that the winner editorial cartoon used the Bradesco logotype as a parallel of the Twin Towers . Bradesco is a  big bank, one of the biggest sponsors in Brazil. “ The design doesn´t even crticized the bank, it only registered a great find of visual analogy, which is the prime matter of humor” , says Santiago.
Brazilian cartoonist Henrique Magalhães thinks the best cartoons are published in independent magazines and on websites. Therefore, cartoonists always find a way to skip censorship and express themselves.
Latin America cartoonist deal with the uneven competition of massively imported syndicated cartoons and comic strips that  plagues media with  foreign and cheaper characters and superheroes ( Garfield, Spider Man ) who are already known by the public , and manga  and aminé comics from Japan , often  copied by local artists. Everybody knows it is almost imposible to compete with Peanuts or Hagar the Horrible.
Most Latin American editorial cartoonists still preserve a very personal artistic style of their own, in contrast with European or Chinese editorial cartoons copied from USA style.
Cartoonists are asked by editors to work exclusively with one or two publications, for not being accused of desloyalty. Exclusivity is not paid.  
Latina America has a 48, 7% freelance journalists. Cartoonists are considered in a nowhere land between artists and  journalists, but generally , for contracts they are treated as journalists . Freelancers never get official identification, and unions never negotiate with employers for individual cases. It is the cartoonist who fix the prize of the work , and that means a «Take it or leave it » situation for the worker. In a case that a cartoon or its idea is robbed by the editor, the syndicate lawyer in Argentina refused to sue him saying «  It is not convenient for you to turn against the media, or you´ll loose a potential future employer ».
According to legislation of freelancers  in Argentina, they are not offcially recognized as workers. A full time  journalists in Argentina is considered a «  permanent collaborator ». A « permanent collaborator » is anyone who has published  24 or more collaborations in one year in a same publication. Knowing this,  editors avoid carefully to publish cartoon number 24 , and they fire him without getting an idemnization.In this way, cartoonists are going around,  changing  different  publisher houses yearly because they don´t last long in any place, and therefore they cannot get a place or name in any magazine or newspaper.
In Peru , there are cartoonists who struggle to be free, and those who serve to the interest of the owner or director of the media. “We may see that their works are mere "illustrations" of the editorial line of the newsapere where their work”, Peruvian cartoonist Omar Zevallos Velarde reports.
 Lack of Latin American syndicates or cartoon organizations make all cartoonists defenseless in a lone struggle. The vast majority are working freelance under very short contracts, and that makes the fragilization of  their work, and the menace  of being fired in no time, if they don´t stick to what they are expected to do .
In Mexico, media is hostage of government advertising and economical support. Specially in the interio states , media are vulnerable to demagogic measures and no cartoon speaking about governemet or politics is accepted . Being poorly paid, cartoonist rather  stick to what they are asked to . Anyway there are fine examples of trying to critisize and give a different opinion about the power circles, if not in one place in another . As a consequence of saying too much in a cartoon , the newspaper “Noticias” from Oaxaca, Mexico,  was closed as a political revenge . Governor José Murat self – attack  propaganda maneuvre was shown satirically by a lot of cartoonists who were allerted by editors to stop doing so. They were safe because the case had got  national  headlines. “What allows us to be free is that we have lots of newspapers and magazine where to express our points of view “, Dario Castillejos report .
On the last twenty years Mexico has new kind of inedited freedom. TV is owned by Televisa monopoly , and press paper was owned by the estate . Critic press was harassed and journalists  were bribed to speak in favour of the govenrment . Since last PRI president  Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000)  presidents could be caricatureized in newspaperes with realtive freedom .
Mexican cartoonist Antonio Neri Licón was changed from nacional news  to International news  after making a cartoon of the Secretary of Economy ( El Universal) . He was then fired from Intrenational News by petition of Hebrew community in Mexico for making a cartoon on Shamir as Israel First Minister. He was mopved to  Financial News where he made cartoons that bothered the  newspapres ´s owner , and he was also  fired. He later worked in Economista newspaper were though they received readers complains for making cartoons on religion , they were published  anyway. Now he works  in Milenio newspaper , having total freedom .
In 2001, in Panamá , “La Prensa” cartoonist Julio Briceno was sued by Panama ex vice-president Ricardo Arias Calderón, who told him to pay one million dollars for offending him in a cartoon showing him as a traitor to his own principles, favouring dictaorship´s  party PRD . He still stand for his freedom of expression under his own motto “ As a citizen , I have friends. As a cartoonist, not” He says Panama  cartoonists are  concient of their main goal , who is watching for the peoples rights and against power abuses.
In Costa Rica, Oscar Sierra Quintero, director of La Pluma Sonriente cartoonists organization, in 2003 was  fired from “Prensa Libre” ( “Free Press”! ) newspaper– where he worked for 4 years – for drawing a cartoon on Bush policies in Irak war. He didn’t get an idemnization, and he couln´t sue the newspapers because he was  not working under contract , but as a freelance cartoonits. He was profesionally ostracized in his own country, and now works for “LaPrensa”  Nicaraguan newspaper  in which he took care of making a contract be signed . He knows about a  Nicaraguan cartoonist who was threatened by a political party. Now,  Briceno  tries to show his opinion in ways that may be acceptable in the newspaper in which he works , and he makes his most satyrical works only for exhibitions or international cartoon contests.
 Colombia is a country punished with endless problems of government allied with narcotraffic maffias .Chento was a famous editorial cartoonist working for El Tiempo newspaper in Bogotá. During the 80´s and 90´s , bombings in the streets and shopping centers was an everyday matter. One bomb- car was destined to El Espectador newspaper, a journal opponent to narco- politic maffias. Chento made cartoons against ultra right terrorism which exterminated the only leftist party (Unión Patriótica), who and threatened jounalists and media.
 Interamerican Press Society ( SIP) awarded Chento . And he had to run out of the country. El Tiempo doesn´t publish these kind of cartoons anymore, Colombian cartoonists Roberto Sanabria reports. 
Nani Mosquera , Colombian cartooinst living in Spain, says there´s a lot to be satirysed by a cartoonists in Colombia, but “ it is a work for the bravest”·  She admires Héctor Osuna Gil, for having dared in the profession, since 1959 in El Siglo newspaper,  Occidente and Semana.magaizne, and during more than forty years in  El Espectador , where  he also  writes columns in which he mixes fiction with reality .Not casually, imaginary realism  was born in Colombia – also the style of Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez- as a defense mechanism and a by- product of a  place where  - as Adriana Mosuqera says - “you never know where the bullets come from ” .Most of famous and awarded Colombian cartoonists as Osuna , Calarcá, Mico, Palossa, Cabellero, Grosso, Chócolo, Betto, Garzón, Matador , practice self censorship as a way of self preservation . “ Everybody knows they have  much more audacious ideas they cannot publish”. Alter the crime of humorist Jaime Garzón (1961-1999), brother of cartoonist Alfredo Garzón – everybody knows that being a cartoonists is a running a constant risk . Not one cartoonist wants to be next Jaime Garzón in Colombia. Cartoonist Alfin,- from   El Nuevo Siglo newspaper- had to flee abroad after being menaced .“ Cartoonists give the joy of daring to say what most of peopele dont dare to think.  This is common everywhere , but in Colmbia you risk  your life”  ( Adriana Mosquera “Nani”)
In Cuba, any cartoonist who is not with the regime, is considered to be against it . Cartoonists are  difficult to catalogue as a Union – says Cuban cartoonist Tomaso  Rodriguez Zatas “ Tomy” -  “ In theory, we belong to the  Unión de Artistas y Escritores de Cuba (UNEAC) ( Union of Artists and Writers of Cuba)  and to the  Unión de Periodistas de Cuba (UPEC) ( Union of Journalists  of Cuba) . But as cartoonists, the people of UNEAC see as as journalists, not artists. And in the UPEC, journalists see us a artists. Therefore we fell in nobody´s land, no one  knows what we are , and we are underprotected as workers” .
In Cuba there have a lot of celebrated humor magazines (Palante, Melaíto) and the humor section  on Juventud Rebelde newspaper , called DDT “ as a venom ahianst the bad things of society” , joins the works of lot of good artists
Due to constat censorship  in Cuba, Latin America is full of great exiled Cuban cartoonists, as  Aristides “ Artes” Hernandez or Angel Boligá in Mexico,  Alén Lauzán in Chile , and Angel “ Gélico” Fernández  in Canada .
Their creativity and skilled art is the best in the continent, maybe due to the censorship suffered during his career , which acted as a trigger in their creativity .“ Not a critic against the Cuban Revolution is admitted, much less a cartoon. “ says Gélico. “ While in Cuba I was jailed inside the Ministery of Interior during two days for makings a caricature on Fidel Castro and his brother Raúl Castro ( showed here) , that were exhibited in my first personal exhibition in 1993, in the Gallery of the House of the Young Creators, in Santa Clara, Cuba. Since that day, I was fired from all newspares and magazines in which I worked, forcing me to emigrate.” As in Canada he couldnt find a new horizon as cartoonist-  “humor is dry and poor “- Latin Cartoonists and  humor writers  express themselves in a Canada- born website named  Proyecto Cañasanta. ( He also send cratoons to international festivals, where he got  several awards.
Alex Falco – Cuban resident cartoonist–  mentions revolutionary leader José Martí saying that cartoonists must awaken  conciences as  "a whip with bells in the extreme" ,  to turn us into better human beings .
 In Cuba there is a rebirthing of the book industry for any genre ( novel , poetry , essay) except for cartoon books. Any other kind of books seems to be more interesting than cartoons or comics. “ Publishers  will rather make fiction books  than humor books . Novels give more money back. Once a humor collection was  planned , it was  cancelled to do novels and essays, instead.” ( Arturo , Ediciones Luminaria, Sancti Spiritu, Cuba).
Most of the biggest cartoonists in Latin America are working for foreign countries,  or emigrated to live abroad , looking for better work conditions. The biggest emmigrations have happened in Eastern Europe countries , Cuba , Argentina and Pakistan .
Courageous cartoonists are always awarded. On this , succesful brother cartoonists Idígoras and Pachi from Spain , in a  crowded ceremony to their homage,  said abruptly : “ Thank you , but  we cartoonists are fed up of homages . What are this honours worth of , if we cannot publish our works?”
The most industrially or politically controlled the media, the most conservative they get .  Humor can ruin the image of a certain product, person or business. The constant making fun of some political individual damages his image in a permament way. A good joke about a powerful person is the most vivid memory anyone can have about him. “Ridicule diminishes power forever.” ( Argentinian Dante Voccia , ex- sales manager of “Humor”magazine)
It is not strange that countries where presidents want to keep power forever in absolutists systems  will not welcome the skills of cartoonists as  “justice watchers “.
Media, press industries and publishers are much aware of the power of humor, and always control very closely the contents of cartoons delivered by the authors (except in cases were they are sure that cartoons are inoffensive).
Powerful people know that, innocent as it seems, cartoons get to the core of the situation in a snap, and  are much remembered by the readers.
This only shows cartoons work. Cartoons are powerful. And cartoonists are determined to use this power in spite of censorship. Thanks to Internet, our work has neither boundaries nor limits. 
Once I was producer of a HBO special docummentary on Argentine cartoonists. After a week interviewing cartoonists  I asked this Venezuelan crew what was their final impression . “ Cartoonists are jobless, they are  censored, they are  nostalgic of better times, they are desperate . But they are also amazingly self -determined and perseverant in their job!”
I think this apply to all Latin American cartoonists.  .

martes, 6 de septiembre de 2011

Asociate a FECO

"Drawing the world together "
fue durante años el lema de esta asociación de dibujantes humorísticos de todo el planeta que busca que entre todos, le pongamos una sonrisa al mundo .
¡Dibujemos al mundo juntos!

Si sos un dibujante medianamente bueno.
Si tus amigos se rien de tus ocurrencias sobre papel.
Si tenés un nivel artistico aceptable ( no dibujás con birome sobre papel rayado, sino que ya te jugas a la pluma y el roting sobre papel blanco ...)
Seas o no dibujante humoristico, monero o caricatusriota profesional, ya podes ser socio de FECO.

Por una cuota mínima anual ( el precio de media pizza o medio Big Mac por mes), que no se vuelve a pagar hasta el año que viene ( pasados 12 meses!) , FECO te da acceso a dar un salto internacional con tu humor, a dejar de dibujar en soledad como un lobo esteapario y compartir experiencias con colegas de todo el mundo , y llenarte de catalogos y albumes preciosos que te mandana tu casa de modo totalmente gratuito, y de los cuatro puntos cardinales .

Un único requisito : Tu desafio será a aprender a hacer humor SIN PALABRAS , porque vas a participar en salones de Japon , Turquia e Iran , donde lo unico que saben de español es " Maradona".

Después te llueven catalogos y albumes y revistas de todo el muidno a domicilio ( una vez que particpas , envias tus dibujos a foros y links intrenacionals, y te empiezan a conocer). Ahi reservate un cuarto extra , o un garage , porque la cantidad de cosas que te mandan es tan bestial que no sabras que hacer con tu biblioteca del humor con catalogos de Rodas , Chipre, Tokyo, China, Mexico ...

Eso si : tenes que enviar dibujos por mail o correo ( cada vez mas por mail ...¡ cero costos de correo! ) para que te conozcan.

Ventajas extras de estar en FECO:

- FECO te da la posibilidad de saltar de " cabotaje" a Internacional
- te da la posibilidad de ser reconocido en el mundo entero
- te da todas las bases de concursos y salones de humor gráfico en un mismo sitio. Es cierto que si te dedicas a buscarlos en la web , los encuentras ...pero no tendras el sistema de estrellas y ranking de confiabilidad en el concurso que te da FECO ( basado en el historial de cada concurso) , y FECO los reune a todos juntos, con lo que ahorras tiempo , y te dedicas solos a salones serios.
- Aunque FECO no te sirviera para nada porque ya te sabes todos los concursos, te da un lugar de pertenencia , y miles de amigos virtaules ...¡ todos dibujantes!
- Si participas en los eventos, no hace falta que ganes nada para que te lluevan catalogos y libros de humor de todo el mundo.
- Ademas de tener todo en un mismo website todo lo que hay que saber , yo me ocupo personalmente de enviarles datos, noticias, bases que no hay en FERCO ( especialmente las latinoamericanas, a la que a veces no tienen acceso en Europa) y de interconectralos a todos contando las novedades de cada uno : publicaciones muestras , etc , entre los miembros de FECO. la idea es que se sientan contactados, que pertenecen a algo que se mueve .
- Muchos creen que FECO es una bolsa de trabajo. para no decepcionarlos, aviso que FECO no lo es...pero te puede llegar algun encargo o sorpresa de alguien que te quiere como dibujante porque te vio en uan exhibicion ( yo termine insiprando a un director de cine turco con mi dibujo!) .
- En una labor tan solitaria como la de dibujante, FECO te contacta con foros, chatrooms y actividades de todo el mundo que te hacen senti acompañado. Gracias a FECO yo organicé una muestra de humor brasileño en Bosnia , hice un par de muestras enormes en Buenos Aires con auspicio del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Bs As y de la embajada de España, publiqué en Iran, Japón e India , viajé a Turquia a recibir un premio, a China a recibir otro, hice una muestra individual en Croacia e ilustre un libro bosnio!!!!! . ¡Como ves , cosas imposibles sin FECO !
- Podes ganar un premnio en metalico, y que hasta te inviten a recibirlo al sitio de entrega .
- Si te dedicas y sos muy bueno, hasta te pueden llamar como miembro del jurado.

¿ Qué esperás para asociarte?

Escribime a : y te cuento cómo hacerlo.

¿Para qué sirve FECO?

Ser miembro de FECO posibilita a los dibujantes de humor y caricaturistas a obtener en segundos todas las bases de concursos, salones y exhibiciones internacionales de humor gráfico , que de no ser por esta entidad deberían bucear solitos navegando arduamente por la web.
Esto permite a cualquier dibujante dar un salto importante : ser reconocido internacionalmente , al puinto de que los organizadores de tales eventos, al año empiezan aconvocarlos directamente a su mail. Este es el motivo principal por el cual muchos colegas dejan de ser miembros de FECO cuando ya son convocados a los eventos que a ellos les interesan. Otros, permanecen en FECO porque es también un sitio de pertenencia e intercambio de novedades, noticias y de promoción de la labor profesional de cada uno .
No hay muchas organizaciones de humoristas gráficos, y FECO es la mayor del mundo con su más de treinta sedes en distintas ciudades en distintos paises.
Cualquier grupo de dibujantes de humor de nivel profesional que agrupe a 10 o más colegas puede armar una sede de FECO donde quiera.
Invitamos a los dibujantes asociarse contactándose al mail :

¡Buena inspiración a todos!
Sitio web central de FECO :

domingo, 5 de junio de 2011

Gracias desde Japón

Dear Friend Cartoonists,

Thank you very much for participating to our "Cartooning for Japan Exposition".

I've received about 300 cartoons of 76 cartoonists from 33 countries.
Our act was warmly accepted by Japanese people.
I cooperated with 3 NPO.
First we made publicity at Hirsaki University.
4 news papers and one TV reported our action.
We opened the exposition in a gallery of a department store in Hirosaki (my town in north Japan). With my friend prof.Vic Carpenter, we held a talk show in the gallery on the 4th July. Some 40 people participated Our myer also came to our gallery . After the talk show we call the audience a donation.
We are thinking to hold exposition in Sendai (Tsunami attacked city) and at Tokyo, hoping to show the cartoons to states men and stuff of Toden (electric company).

I attach some photos and the article published on Asahishimbun to 2 mails.

I thank you very much on behalf of Japanese people.


Ps1. Please tell me the mail address of Chaunu, if you know.

PS.2We made our homepage.
The address is following:

sábado, 21 de mayo de 2011

Consejos para dibujantes ( en ingles) : maravilloso

Super Obvious Secrets That I Wish They’d Teach In Art School
on May 17, 2011
in Comics, Illustration and News
. Tags: advice, career, Comics, freelance, Illustration, rules, secrets, students, tips.
I get a lot of emails from illustration students and young cartoonists. Sometimes they ask to interview me for a class assignment, sometimes they’re recent graduates looking for advice on how to transition from art student to professional illustrator/cartoonist. I get emails asking about how I promote my work, how to “break into” illustration or comics, how to find clients, how to gain a following on the internet, etc.
I usually laugh a little as I read all these emails because I myself am still really struggling to make ends meet as a full time illustrator and cartoonist. I’m still figuring out what works and what doesn’t. But things are definitely improving and getting easier, slowly but steadily.

I understand the daunting feeling that comes with the end of college or the decision to leave a day job and take those first steps towards a career as an illustrator or cartoonist, having gone through it myself not that long ago. It’s good to talk to people and learn from those that have been at it already for a few years. I myself have learned a ton from emailing and talking with more experienced illustrators and cartoonists. I still ask colleagues for advice all the time. I’ve also learned a lot of things the hard way, by trying and failing. I don’t have all the answers yet (I never will), but here are a some important things I’ve learned so far. Most of it seems like obvious, common sense stuff. And it is. I hope some of you find this useful!

If you don’t enjoy drawing enough to want to do it every single day then you should probably find another line of work! I don’t know about other freelancers, but I work seven days a week.

Creativity is a muscle. If you want that muscle to stay strong you’ve got to use it every day. If you fall out of the habit of drawing every day it can be really tough to pick it up again. Muscles weaken much faster than they grow. So don’t stop drawing ever! Take a sketchbook with you everywhere. Keep a sketchbook next to your bed. Keep one in your backpack or hand bag. Delete Angry Birds from your phone and spend your time doodling while you’re waiting in line at the bank or riding the subway from 181st Street to Union Square. Drawing is your religion.

Draw something that you don’t think is within your ability to draw. Try drawing a comic without penciling anything first, go straight to ink. Pick up a cheap set of watercolor paints and play with them until your eyes turn into little hearts and you love them and they love you back and everyone is crying happy watercolor tears and embracing. If you don’t think you can draw a motorcycle then draw a motorcycle every day until you’re good at drawing motorcycles. Go to a life drawing session and draw some naked people (it’s fun!).

Again, creativity is a muscle. You won’t end up with gigantic tough guy muscles if you’re afraid to try lifting more than five pounds.

You don’t grow by staying within your comfort zone. You’ll be a stinky stagnant little pool of moldy potential with little insects buzzing around and having desperate sexy times and laying eggs all over the damn place. You need to get your creative juices flowing like a big majestic waterfall! Force yourself to draw something that you know will be difficult. Force yourself to draw something you have no interest in at all and find a way to make it interesting. I used to suck at drawing backgrounds and scenery. I was more interested in drawing people and I avoided backgrounds as much as possible. I decided to spend a year really focusing on drawing awesome backgrounds.

Now I love drawing scenery just as much as people and I’m a more powerful, versatile illustrator than I used to be.

A lot of the opportunities and jobs and exposure that have come my way have been a direct result of talking to people and being a nice guy. There have been a number of occasions where illustrator friends have been really busy and have sent assignments my way that they had to turn down. I’ve befriended cartoonists who have gone on to find incredible success and was then lucky enough to have them link back to my work sending loads of new readers my way. Don’t be dismissive of people who enjoy your work and definitely DO NOT take them for granted. It really stinks when you get to meet an artist you admire at a convention or a book signing and they can’t even make eye contact or smile or look up from their sketchbook to show that they are appreciative of the fact that you enjoy their work and would like to give them your money. When working with a new client do your best to accommodate their needs and to be a pleasant person. They aren’t going to send more work your way if you were a pain to deal with. Say “thanks” a lot. And mean it! Be thankful that someone is paying you to sit at home and draw pictures! If no one is paying you then be thankful that we weren’t born without arms.

Don’t trash talk other people’s work even if it really does suck. I can think of plenty of cartoonists who are way more successful than me who, in my opinion, consistently produce dumb, boring, crappy comics. But talking shit about their comics and comparing their success to my own isn’t going to benefit me in any way. It would only be self destructive. It doesn’t matter how many twitter followers you have. But be nice to the people and spam bots that do follow you.

My best work, the work that I get most excited about and that other people seem to enjoy and respond to the most, is usually stuff that I draw purely for fun. My big mental art breakthroughs usually happen when I’m mindlessly doodling. Sketchbooks are where you get to draw whatever you want and where ideas are born. Set aside a little time every day to doodle and explore. Draw for YOURSELF.

Did you ever sit on the floor and draw as a kid? Most kids do it. Do you remember how fun it was? It was really fun. It didn’t matter what the drawings looked like when you were done. It was just a fun thing to do. I remember drawing monsters and spooky castles with my brothers. It was one of our favorite things to do. We could sit and draw monsters and spooky castles for hours. We were drawing them because monsters and spooky castles interested us and because the act of drawing is super fun. Don’t forget how fun drawing can (and should) be. Do forget about impressing anyone. Just have fun. Don’t pressure yourself into thinking you’ve got to draw something amazing because if you sit down and think “I’ve got to make an amazing drawing” then you’re just going to end up staring at a blank sheet of paper. Just start drawing.

Want to draw a graphic novel? Then do it. Stop talking about it and do it. Don’t wait until you have more free time or more drawing skills. As you get get older you will find yourself with less and less free time. And the only way to improve your skills is to draw a lot. Like, several graphic novels worth of drawings. So set some deadlines for yourself and draw a graphic novel. Deadlines are CRUCIAL. Right now I’m working on a project that at first seemed extremely daunting. I sat down and figured out that if I draw three pictures every day the project will be done in about a month. So every day I know I’ve got to get three drawings done and if I fall behind or miss a day I’ve got to make up for it the next day. Being organized and tracking my progress is helping and actually makes being productive kind of like a fun game. I made a spreadsheet to map out my progress. I get to fill a little section in with color every time I complete a drawing or finish coloring a page. Being able to visualize my progress is awesome and gets me excited about finishing a big project. Also I tell myself that if I don’t have this project done in a month I’ll have a mini freak out and then my face will shrivel up super fast and I’ll disintegrate like that Nazi fellow at the end of The Last Crusade. DEADline! Eh? Get it? *nudge nudge*

Whether you’re digging for treasure in the yard or hunched over a drafting table, it’s important to take breaks every so often! Breaks help keep your mind (and body) fresh.

I like to take short breaks often. Draw for an hour and then walk around the block or have a quick snack or just sit and stare out the window for a few minutes. Reward yourself for working hard!

We all have particular artists that we love and have been influenced by. But one of the worst things you can do is to get stuck on those artists or to try to imitate them. Yes, it’s good to study other people’s art and learn from it but don’t just hone in on one or two artists that you really admire. Study LOTS of people’s work. If you only allow yourself to be influenced by James Kochalka you’ll just end up as a poor man’s version of James Kochalka. No one draws like James Kochalka better than James Kochalka. Why would anyone care about your work when they just go look at a James Kochalka book? James Kochalka is an awesome cartoonist and you can learn a lot by studying his work BUT make sure you learn something from a lot of other artists too. If you’re drawing comics, try ignoring other people’s comics for a while. Find inspiration in novels or nature documentaries or old videos of Etta James on Youtube or poetry or newspaper articles. Your comics will be much better if you do this. You won’t find success if your only sources of inspiration are other comics that are already popular. A thousand other people are already trying to make something just like that one comic you love and chances are most of them aren’t going to find much success either. It’s also important to go outside and experience new things and interact with people. The world will feed you new ideas and new sources of inspiration. If the only thing you are able to write about or joke about is video games then may the good comics lord have mercy on your soul.

If you want people to respect your work, take you seriously, or pay you to draw things then do not trash talk your own work. Why would you expect someone else take your work seriously when even you, the person that created it, are openly talking about how much it sucks? If you want people to get excited about your work (and to hire you to draw things) then you need to show them that YOU are excited about your work.

Here’s a little story about how I learned that you should be excited about your own work: When I was 20 years old I had one of my comics published for the very first time by New Reliable Press in the first volume of You Ain’t No Dancer. Some of the other artists in that book were Jeffrey Brown, Nicholas Gurewitch, Hope Larson, Jim Mahfood, Bryan Lee O’Malley, Lilli Carré… Dave Cooper did the cover. I was in very good company. The book debuted at SPX, which I attended that year for the very first time. I was lucky enough to meet and talk to a lot of the other artists in the book, artists who I really, really admired. I was understandably a little nervous (my first convention! My first published comic! In a real book! With some really, really great cartoonists!). I met Bryan Lee O’Malley and asked if he’d sign my copy of You Ain’t No Dancer. He was happy to do so. As he was doodling in the book I sheepishly mentioned that I too had a comic in the book. He perked up a little. “Oh yeah? Which one is yours?” he asked as he began to flip through the book. Feeling totally intimidated and terrified I looked at my feet and said “Oh… uh… it’s… um… it’s not that great…” When I looked up I immediately knew I’d said the wrong thing. Whatever interest he might have had had in my work had completely disappeared. And so a creator who’s work I admire and who I’m sure would have been a good person to be friendly with probably thinks very little of me and my work if he even remembers me at all.

Everyone has off days or stretches of time where they just aren’t happy with any of the work they’re producing. It happens! And it’s okay! But just because you’re going through a bit of a rut that doesn’t mean you should stop drawing. You aren’t going to beat the rut by not drawing anything. Just accept that not every drawing or comic you produce is going to be awesome and keep working. Spend some time with your sketchbook. If you’ve lost excitement for a project then ask yourself why it’s not exciting anymore. What can you do to make it exciting again? Change something!

I’ve tried many different methods of self promotion. I’ve sent out postcards in the mail, I’ve tried shmoozing at conventions, I’ve sent cold emails and have considered cold calling art directors (I’m still considering it). The most effective thing I’ve done has actually been the simplest: Draw awesome stuff and put it on the internet. Do this for a while and good things will happen.
Wow! This is a long blog post. I’ve got to go catch up on all the drawing I should have been doing instead of writing this! I hope someone out there finds this helpful.

115 Responses to “Super Obvious Secrets That I Wish They’d Teach In Art School”
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1. 1 Josiah
May 17, 2011 at 6:14 pm
Thanks for this! I’m going to art school next year, so I’m pretty terrified about everything, but this is all really great advice! I need to get more art done, and more practice in. Thanks!
2. 2 Pete
May 17, 2011 at 6:17 pm
This was brilliant sir, it really helps get me and I’m sure others motivated, and I’m not even an artist.
3. 3 Werner Fismer
May 17, 2011 at 6:45 pm
Thank you for this!
I’m quite lost with my creative endevours at the moment, and what you’ve shared here (and how you’ve shared it) really means a lot to me. (Especially the bits about having fun and dealing with ruts.)
4. 4 CheyAnne
May 17, 2011 at 6:57 pm
This is a great article and one I really needed to read right now. Wonderful how that works, yes? Anyway, I just joined Tumblr and learning my way around, I found your inspiring post. Love your illustrations as well. Especially the great big beautiful blue room.
Great background, those people must love that room. Thanks for the reminder to DRAW every single day. I really, really want to get serious with my art, but once again, I’m making excuses and not following thru. Thanks again
peace n abundance,
5. 5 Max Hancock
May 17, 2011 at 7:06 pm
Great post! I think everyone knows these things but it’s always good to have a reminder. The couple of years before I went to art college, I would draw for hours per day. Now that I’m in college, I barely draw. Once a week maybe. Although it’s slightly because I’m learning 3D instead, I still could have drawn a lot more. I have had some success but it feels like I’m still coasting on the progression I made prior to college, haha. I’ve always known I need to draw daily if I’m going to get better again. Time to shut up and do it.
6. 6 protowilson
May 17, 2011 at 7:09 pm
Great advice! I must make sure my students see this. I will also print out it to look at when I feel glum about my work/drawing habits.
7. 7 Dominic Bugatto
May 17, 2011 at 7:13 pm
Wonderful post , so bang on about a lot of things .
8. 8 Brhillman
May 17, 2011 at 7:20 pm
Genuinely enjoyed this :) Daily doodling is definitely vitamins for artists.
9. 9 Grace Oris
May 17, 2011 at 7:21 pm
Great advice, and it’s not just for art school too. The principles can be applied in other disciplines as well. Thanks for the reminder!
10. 10 Anne Lessing
May 17, 2011 at 7:24 pm
I’m not an illustrator (I’m a writer), but I found this post inspiring and helpful. Everything you say here can be applied to writing as well, and this post is so well-written and funny that I couldn’t help but read it. Excellent work, and thank you for writing this!
11. 11 Samantha
May 17, 2011 at 7:26 pm
Great blog post, definitely worth the long read. They definitely feel like common sense, but it feels good to be reminded how important it is to simply enjoy the act of drawing.
I find it helps to keep a personal “secret” sketchbook that no one sees for when I need to draw ‘for me’. Separate from all the work-share-post ones. This way I can just have fun, and not think about if it’s looks cool in the end. If it does sweet, onto the internet it goes, if not, it’s my happy little secret :)
12. 12 Chris Kennett
May 17, 2011 at 7:43 pm
Thanks Phil, that is one of the greatest blog posts I’ve read in a long time. I agree with you 100% If I may add another heading “Patience”, I’m 35 and have just had my first children’s book printed. A lot of kids ask me similar questions (to the ones they ask of you) and they all have one thing in common, they want it NOW! Success NOW! I couldn’t have created my book at 20, even 30! A little humility and Patience and things will happen when the time is right.
Thanks for sharing :)
13. 13 Michelle Kondrich
May 17, 2011 at 7:50 pm
Really great post, Phil. Thanks!
14. 14 VERWHO?
May 17, 2011 at 8:23 pm
This is just too damn true and too damn beautiful, so I’m gonna pass it around a bit.
15. 15 Rabbit Town Animator
May 17, 2011 at 8:51 pm
Wow! This is a great read. I am a 2D animator/illustrator and what you wrote was informative and really enjoyable to read. I have a weakness in backgrounds…best get on to making some I think ;)
16. 16 Kwatkins_artist
May 17, 2011 at 8:52 pm
A great kick in the butt…and inspiring too! Thanks! Wishing u amazing success!
Live. Laugh. Be At Peace!
17. 17 Tomas
May 17, 2011 at 9:02 pm
I didn’t read the article but the kid slide cartoon is one of the most original jokes I’ve seen in the long time.
18. 18 Zack
May 17, 2011 at 9:09 pm
Great piece! I’ve been plugging away at my own webcomic for the last year and this was just the breath of fresh air I needed to keep the spirit alive.
19. 19 Ridge Rooms
May 17, 2011 at 9:11 pm
I want to give every paragraph here a big sloppy kiss. I’d say I’ve struggled at some point in time with every single issue above. Thank you for this post! I’m especially gripped lately by the part about losing excitement for something you’re working on. I have a piece I keep putting aside because although I know it’ll kick-ass in the end, the process isn’t really grabbing me. I thought maybe my instincts (about its eventual kick-assness) were off, but I’m following your advice to try and rethink how to make myself excited about it again.
Thanks, Phil, for being so candid about all of this! I think I may need to print this post out and paper the wall above my drawing table with it for a while until I get some kinks in my process worked out. I’ve worked with many famous artists & cartoonists over the years, and most were aloof about their work … it always makes me believe if I’m struggling with some of the above issues sometimes, then I’m not a pro artist. Now I know that’s not true.
p.s. and you’re absolutely right about if-you-put-it-on-the-Internet-they-will-come
20. 20 Courtney
May 17, 2011 at 9:28 pm
Fantastic post with great tips and awesome drawings! Thank You!
21. 21 Tom Sexton
May 17, 2011 at 9:57 pm
Good stuff. It all comes down to love of the craft.
22. 22 Chris Otto
May 17, 2011 at 10:22 pm
Excellent advice! After reading through the tips, it’s all things that seem so simple, but we often forget them. Oh yeah, I’m supposed to be having fun with this! Seems obvious, but it’s hard to keep it in mind all the time.
I’ve only just started drawing comics, and it quickly became something I look forward to doing every day.
23. 23 Renee K
May 17, 2011 at 10:36 pm
This is a damn good post, Phil. This is good for college grads and seasoned professionals alike. Never get lazy!
24. 24 Stephen
May 17, 2011 at 11:11 pm
Thanks, Phil. I’ve had a super crappy, self-loathing kind of week, and this was some fresh air. Henceforth, I will try to have a lot more fun. :-)
25. 25 hotcreosote
May 17, 2011 at 11:18 pm
I do not draw at all. This is excellent advice for anyone in the art world (broadly defined.) Thank you, sir!
26. 26 wings
May 17, 2011 at 11:23 pm
thanks for this. especially the part about art ruts.
27. 27 James Burks
May 18, 2011 at 12:14 am
Great Advice. Thanks for taking the time to share.
28. 28 Amanda
May 18, 2011 at 12:57 am
Thanks. :) This came to me at just the right time, and is much appreciated. Best of luck to you!
29. 29 Dan Wolfe
May 18, 2011 at 1:02 am
Great post. As everyone else has said, really good advice applies to all sorts of things not just illustration (obviously substituting drawing for whatever it is you want to do!)
I do love the mental image of the deadline meltdown! :D
30. 30 susie g
May 18, 2011 at 1:10 am
phil, this is so awesome & totally inspiring! you rule.
31. 31 Matt
May 18, 2011 at 1:18 am
This was awesome. Thank you! There was a lot of really great advice and good positive things for me to think about. Seriously, thanks a ton!
32. 32 Tali
May 18, 2011 at 2:04 am
That is just brilliant!
By the way - it is REALLY hard to find old videos of Etta James on Youtube.. I’ve tried before!! Where are they all hiding?!
33. 33 Marinn
May 18, 2011 at 2:07 am
I fall for this post. Soo-damn-true!
Thanks for the reminder.
PS: you are a great writer too :)
34. 34 Phil
May 18, 2011 at 2:10 am
Tali: This one is my favorite!
35. 35 jackie
May 18, 2011 at 2:30 am
Brilliant piece. I get asked the same question so many times and have been thinking about putting something similar on my website so that I can stop repeating myself.
And there are lessons in here that I have forgotten after 30 years of working as an illustrator, so thanks.
Will link to this piece when I have written mine.
36. 36 John
May 18, 2011 at 2:40 am
a great read to start my morning and keep me motivated! thank you very much for writing this and posting it on the internet ^^
37. 37 Lee
May 18, 2011 at 2:44 am
Wow, fantastic bits of advice here, thanks alot!
38. 38 matt
May 18, 2011 at 2:53 am
Thank you so much for playing hooky from your three daily drawings to write this post! It’s very much appreciated. Still working the day job and trying on freelance illustration in any free time I have it’s easy to get bogged down. To read so much good advice in one spot is tremendously invigorating. I feel I could draw tall buildings in a single bound ;-) Thanks again illustration guru!
39. 39 Penny
May 18, 2011 at 2:55 am
Fantastic inspirational reading for anyone, not just budding illustrators. Completely hit the spot on several fronts, thanks!
40. 40 Björn
May 18, 2011 at 3:28 am
Great post, really inspiring (to a degree that I felt compelled to comment on your post which I hardly ever can be arsed to do)! Obvious but none the less important things to keep in mind (and be reminded of every once in a while) when working in the creative field. If I may I would also like to post yet another advice here: I have found it very useful at times (especially when you’re pitching your work to clients who for one reason or another may not be that experienced in buying illustration work, design work or the likes of it) to try and put your finger on and explain how your work will translate into value for your client. For example; If you want to illustrate for a magazine or newspaper you would explain how editorial illustration can be a great alternative to photography at certain times - for instance when publishing an opinion piece or something similarly notional where a photograph just won’t provide the desired impact (or just is’nt an option at all). It is important to keep in mind that many “buyers” of your work are people that feel more at home with figures, diagrams, etc. and hence can have a hard time in understanding the value of something as abstract as art. And I’m not saying this is something that goes for every comissioner because I have, and I’m pretty sure you have too, had the pleasure of working with people who understand the value of artistic freedom as well as the importance of a decent paycheck, but none the less - I think this is something that helps a lot when communicating with clients. Again thanks for a great post, I really like your work as well. Peace.
41. 41 Jacques Nyemb
May 18, 2011 at 4:25 am
Thanks so much for posting this! It’s really helpful stuff!
42. 42 Aisha Thani
May 18, 2011 at 4:27 am
I should do that spend a whole year drawing backgrounds thing…
all awesome advice I think everyone should follow ^^
43. 43 Andy Fanton
May 18, 2011 at 5:38 am
I’ve read a lot of words in my time, but none more wise than these. Excellent, excellent article!
44. 44 Joel Christian Gill
May 18, 2011 at 5:46 am
I teach at an art school and this sounds a lot like a speaker we have come down from CCS Center for Cartoon Studies in White river Junction Vermont Alec Longstreth you can see is version of this here:
45. 45 Joel Christian Gill
May 18, 2011 at 5:48 am
I teach at an art school (NH Institute of Art) and this sounds a lot like a speaker we have come down from CCS Center for Cartoon Studies in White river Junction Vermont Alec Longstreth you can see is version of this here:
46. 46 Darryl Ayo, who is VERY good, thank you
May 18, 2011 at 6:38 am
Phil, I love you man. You are the best doodly dude! I’m so glad this post of yours has reached so many people!
And dang this post hit home like whoa. Time to stop moping and start mopping (as is mopping the pages with ink). You’re a great dude, an inspiring figure and a mean ink-slinger. Can’t wait to see your BOOK, man!
47. 47 Tykayn
May 18, 2011 at 8:01 am
yay good advices :)
i would advice to draw outside and with some friends who love to draw too, to travel to see new things and keep drawings that are not good, to see how you evolved and to point what you have to improove instead of acting like you never did anything wrong.
the important is to stand up!
and enjoy :)
48. 48 adam
May 18, 2011 at 8:36 am
wow, awesome stuff! thanks for sharing.
49. 49 eozberk
May 18, 2011 at 8:38 am
I skimmed the other replies and didn’t notice any mention to the amazing drawing of the kids on the slide. Made me laugh pretty hard.
Your point about the internet is right on. I found this post through tumblr.
Meanwhile, I’m no artist but I’ve toted around several sketchbooks since highschool. Great advice Phil!
50. 50 brad
May 18, 2011 at 9:00 am
thanks for the great read! good insight and i have always enjoyed your work!
51. 51 ShadowXEyenoom
May 18, 2011 at 9:33 am
Thank you really much for posting this :) This are going to help me alot ^_^
52. 52 lesley
May 18, 2011 at 10:08 am
love it. simple and goes the same for designers.
53. 53 riflow
May 18, 2011 at 10:16 am
I love you.
I’m going to bookmark this and use it as a pick me up for when I feel depressed, inferior, unmotivated….you get the idea.
54. 54 pam wishbow
May 18, 2011 at 10:34 am
you totally just got me out of my rut :)
55. 55 tyler
May 18, 2011 at 10:37 am
thanks for saying what we all think but never take the time to write down. reblogged/reposted in every way I could.
56. 56 Joy Mallari
May 18, 2011 at 10:38 am
Thank you for taking a break from drawing and writing this! These are super obvious secrets but only made more powerful by the fact that someone else is experiencing and articulating them as well.
We go to art school because our entire lives we’ve enjoyed making art: drawing during school lectures, on road trips, even at the kitchen table. It’s always a refreshing reminder to post grads that we chose this line of work because it’s fun. FUN!
57. 57 Dustin Cantos
May 18, 2011 at 10:40 am
You know, this is the second time I am reading this. Why?
During the first reading, I stopped halfway…I stopped because I had the incredible urge to draw again right then and there. So now it is the next day for me, and I just finished reading.
Thanks so much for the super obvious tricks that I wish I did learn in college. I wish I did learn them then, but I am glad I know now.
So now I ask, since I’ve read your article, maybe you can look at my artwork as a fair trade? =)
58. 58 John Platt
May 18, 2011 at 10:46 am
“I’m growin’!”
I love that!
59. 59 Jason A. Quest
May 18, 2011 at 11:15 am
Great advice. One thing I would add is to surround yourself with people who will encourage you and challenge you. Not sycophants who’ll tell you your shit smells like roses, and not toxic slime who’ll make you hate yourself, but fellow creators who’ll be honest with you. I’m a lone wolf by nature, so that’s been hard for me, but I found an online community (click my name) that helps with that and I’m starting to make some real progress in getting art made and even getting readers.
60. 60 Jason A. Quest
May 18, 2011 at 11:22 am
Or since the link in my name didn’t work:
61. 61 Paige Keiser
May 18, 2011 at 11:36 am
This article hit the nail on the head - beautifully written and illustrated, thank you! Hope you don’t mind my linking it from my blog.
62. 62 Julie D'Arcy
May 18, 2011 at 12:20 pm
Thank you for taking the time to put this all down. You are completely right.
63. 63 Tracey
May 18, 2011 at 12:29 pm
I stumbled across your post when Google Reader suggested it, wow, do they know me!
Awesome advice, I especially like the bit about being nice. That is so true and starting to seem like a rarer thing on the internet now a days.
Taking breaks, another thing that seems obvious but really essential I think to the creative process. Sometimes ya just gotta walk away from what you’re working on and stare out the window or get a coffee or something. Maybe it helps slow the hands down, so they can do their best and not rush through, or let your head get around the whole idea so you don’t lose sight, I dunno. But I agree, taking breaks, yaaaay!
64. 64 E.D. Lindquist
May 18, 2011 at 12:59 pm
Not an artist, but it’s good advice for any creative pursuit. Plus, the pictures make it more fun to read. Thanks for sharing. :)
65. 65 Rio Aubry Taylor
May 18, 2011 at 1:18 pm
Hey, great advice! I especially like the part about not putting down your own work. I once heard a well respected cartoonist go on and on about how much his art sucked. Though I didn’t know much of his work before the lecture, what I saw of his I thought was very good, and there were definitely students there who loved his comics. I felt like putting his art down was a bit insulting to anyone who actually thought his work was good. Kind of like saying they don’t have good taste or something. I often feel that cartoonists are too self-deprecating, to the point of almost being a detriment to the medium. Anyway, thanks!
66. 66 Rene van Belzen
May 18, 2011 at 1:22 pm
Great post. However, it seems only half the work. There is not only art, but story as well. Do you have any good tips on becoming better at storytelling?
67. 67 leonardo
May 18, 2011 at 1:27 pm
thanks a lot for this dude, the stuf that you talked about in this post worth as much as artbook.
68. 68 Tom Dell'Aringa
May 18, 2011 at 1:29 pm
Amazing article, Phil. These things can’t be said enough, and it really shows in your work. Bravo!
69. 69 Leslie
May 18, 2011 at 1:42 pm
Thank you! I needed to hear…ALL OF THIS. :D
70. 70 John
May 18, 2011 at 1:46 pm
Brilliant! I’m 55 years old and it re-inspired me. Regarding Rene’s question about getting better at storytelling: read short stories. The shorter the better. I recommend Lydia Davis (she is AMAZING), Raymond Carver, Hemingway of course, and Wodehouse’s Jeeves and Wooster stories. Read anything by any of these people and then start designing characters. Then comp up some storyboards. Learn a lot and have big fun.
71. 71 Buzatron
May 18, 2011 at 1:56 pm
This is some fantastic advice! Great stuff for aspiring artists and creative people in general!
72. 72 blossom
May 18, 2011 at 2:12 pm
Thanks for tsking the time to write these words of wisdom. I think that they apply to creative people in other fields as well.
73. 73 Ben Rankel
May 18, 2011 at 3:32 pm
I really needed this.
Thank you so much.
74. 74 Joe Mills
May 18, 2011 at 4:28 pm
Really great post…as someone not right out of college who is trying to drum up some freelance illustration work, it was a much needed kick in the pants.
75. 75 wwwjam
May 18, 2011 at 5:21 pm
Best advice I’ve read in a long LONG time.
76. 76 Leroy
May 18, 2011 at 5:40 pm
Thanks for sharing your experience Phil.
Love your work.
77. 77 Yaku
May 18, 2011 at 6:16 pm
Thank you so much for posting this! I’ve always felt torn about drawing… the thing is I don’t like doing it every day because I find my own skills lacking and even though there has been a lot of improvement in the last ten years (have the crappy high school drawings for comparison), I still find my work lacking. I’ll follow your tips and try to do it every day, although I still feel my work is crap.
78. 78 Greg Pfister
May 18, 2011 at 8:13 pm
I’m not an illustrator / artist and have no plans or desire to be one, but I do write (two technical books, major name publisher). I’ve been, basically, screwing around not getting anywhere on a third, and this really hit the mark with me. Got to go just do it, work it hard, and damn the interruptions and distractions.
Thank you!
79. 79 Andro
May 18, 2011 at 10:21 pm
The best thing I’ve read in a while. Kudos for this :) Time to draw!
80. 80 J. Edward Edens
May 18, 2011 at 11:55 pm
Thank you for this.
81. 81 Dave Flodine
May 19, 2011 at 12:00 am
Wow, this is a great blog post that more artist’s need to read. I don’t think i found one thing i disagree with. Thanks for sharing and good luck to you :)
82. 82 Jess
May 19, 2011 at 1:03 am
I think the most helpful thing for me that you’ve said is not to trash talk yourself. I’m sort of in the habit of doing it, since I don’t want to appear pretentious or anything, but I never really stopped to consider that there may be a difference between being pretentious and having pride in your work.
It’s also sort of comforting to hear that other artists go through periods where stuff they draw just turns out like crap. I feel like I almost go through a monthly cycle of this. Like art PMS.
83. 83 Kenny Grady
May 19, 2011 at 1:22 am
This was really helpful and inspiring. Thank you for taking the time to share your knowledge.
84. 84 Adam
May 19, 2011 at 1:35 am
This has helped and inspired me no end. I feel like I often need a little kick in the right direction when I get side-tracked, although that kick is being needed less and less and I get older! This is what I intend to be my last kick I need.
Hope to see you at a convention some day! Keep up the great artwork, by the way. You are on TOP form!
85. 85 Kevin John Ventura
May 19, 2011 at 1:49 am
Inspiring. Reminds me to be more creative and to grow.
86. 86 dimaks
May 19, 2011 at 2:09 am
I used to draw a lot when i was in high school, then in college. upon stepping out of the academe, I kinda stopped and concentrated on my office work which is more on research works and dang! you are right, it is hard to pick up the drive again.
but thanks for this inspiring article. very well written.
87. 87 dren
May 19, 2011 at 3:18 am
I was enlightened by this post. Thank you!
88. 88 Mattias Adolfsson
May 19, 2011 at 3:50 am
I just got a mail from a struggling artist and have spent the last half hour trying to answer it, now i found that you already had answered it for me.
great post I couldn’t agree more!
89. 89 jim
May 19, 2011 at 4:48 am
Yes sir! Thanks for this. Any professional artist of any stripe would do well to read this. I’m a musician and replacing “draw” with “play” throughout pretty much works, and the other advice translates directly.
i.e. Play something that you don’t think is within your ability to play. Force yourself to play something that you know will be difficult. Force yourself to play something you have no interest in at all and find a way to make it interesting.
I do these things. But I’ve never played a motorcycle. Must try that.
90. 90 cyrus
May 19, 2011 at 5:06 am
Brilliant post. and I think I stumbled across it at just the right time.
91. 91 Alex
May 19, 2011 at 6:32 am
Hi Phil, I found your blog post by way of and I have to take a moment to thank you for writing it.
I’m in the process of leaving a day job to take some first steps towards a career in animation on the other side of the country. I’ve been losing focus amidst the day-to-day preparations of the move, but reading these points have reminded me why I’m making the change in the first place. :)
92. 92 Peter
May 19, 2011 at 7:48 am
I’m a programmer and this is actualy great advice for programming too. Sure, some of the advice takes a bit of creative thinking to apply to my field, but its good anyway.
93. 93 Richard Thompson
May 19, 2011 at 9:01 am
Thank you, Phil, it’s good to hear this stuff. Even if I might’ve known it already, I forget some of it too often.
94. 94 radiant
May 19, 2011 at 10:03 am
Hey Phil, thanks for writing this awesome post. It’s a good reminder for things we’ve forgotten.
95. 95 Falynn K
May 19, 2011 at 10:27 am
Phil! I saw this posted on FB by people who dont know you! Your internet famous! as if you werent already that is :)
(PS good stuff here)
96. 96 Luisa Felix
May 19, 2011 at 12:17 pm
This is the best posting/blog you ever done. Valuable information and illustrations.—- But you did not mention that some people have the disease Rheumatoid-Arthritis in their hands and there are some days they can’t even grip the pen or pencil. And to down tons of pain pills can ruin their liver or kidneys. Some people drawing production is sometimes limited to their health problems. — But it is nothing to be ashamed of, as long as one continues to draw WHEN THEY CAN DO IT. Please make mention of this. Cartoonists are NOT MACHINES. —- Luisa Felix
97. 97 CreativeMind
May 19, 2011 at 12:58 pm
Thanks.. really useful advices :)
98. 98 Kate
May 19, 2011 at 1:51 pm
Excellent article, really good ideas, and your illustrations make it even better :)
99. 99 andrewwales
May 19, 2011 at 3:06 pm
Awesome advice! Thanks for this.
100. 100 Mateusz
May 19, 2011 at 3:58 pm
Thank you for this post! I know my answer will not cover how grateful I am for putting this together, but it sure did motivate me. It helps to visualize the goal better. It just makes sense. I am personally so angry that us artist must learn the hard business, while usually art eats us all leaving not much energy for business itself. Sometimes it kills the fun, but thinking of it as another challenge forces us to stay on ground and to grow as a man. Thank you a lot for your thoughts!
101. 101 Bianca
May 19, 2011 at 4:19 pm
I learned lots today! Thanks~
102. 102 maura
May 19, 2011 at 4:38 pm
hey Phil - great article! i have passed this onto my students to read. lots of great points in here, all of which are so important. thanks - hope you’re doing well :)
103. 103 Christina
May 19, 2011 at 5:15 pm
Thank you, thank you, thank you.
The things I need to hear most tend to come at times when I least expect it. Thanks so much.
104. 104 Juan
May 19, 2011 at 7:26 pm
sweet post.. very well appreciated since i just graduated… it is very obvious stuff.. but it does kick my butt a little bit and makes me want to try harder.. i just opened my sketchbook now… see…
105. 105 t
May 19, 2011 at 10:06 pm
poo slide . . . brilliant.
106. 106 Lindsay
May 19, 2011 at 11:10 pm
Just another silly artist here saying thank you. Thank you!
107. 107 Cynthia
May 20, 2011 at 9:15 am
Love the blue room! Reminds me of my favorite animated Disney movie, 101 Dalmatians. Great article as well :)
108. 108 fajas colombianas
May 20, 2011 at 10:48 am
Draw and draw, dont let others influence you. Draw to your hearts desire.
109. 109 Raziel Azzan
May 20, 2011 at 12:20 pm
Wow i just wanna say thank you so much for putting all of this it opened my mind on art if i ever become a better artist its becaus of you again thank you so much
110. 110 Wally Littman
May 20, 2011 at 2:07 pm
I love the work. Thanks for sharing.
111. 111 RojaMitchell
May 20, 2011 at 3:59 pm
Thanks for this :]
112. 112 HaleyJ.
May 20, 2011 at 8:26 pm
Wow! This really inspires me a lot.
Thank you so much for spending your time to share this!!
113. 113 Tati
May 20, 2011 at 10:40 pm
THANK YOU so much for posting those amazing tips. They came at the right time! I was feeling bad about my art and professional career.
Thanks, thanks, thanks!
Hugs and greetings from Brazil,
114. 114 JessC
May 20, 2011 at 11:17 pm
the last one is what I think the most powerful :D
thanks for this sir! stumbleupon sent me.
115. 115 Ben Thompson
May 21, 2011 at 10:42 am
Nice….however, (not to be picky) but regarding the last, sum-the-blog-up thought, didn’t people came here for your words, not the illustrations/cartoons

sábado, 29 de enero de 2011

El placer de dibujar / Revista Ñ , 26/ 1/11

Al género de los superhéroes y la aventura llegó Clítoris, una revista de historietas que se concibe como un espacio para ejercitar una mirada crítica de la masculinidad hegemónica. En esta entrevista, su staff cuenta por qué en un club de varones “cuando dicen ‘dibuja como una mina’ quieren decir que dibuja mal”.

a- enviarimprimirEnviar notaTu nombre Tu email Nombre del receptor Email del receptor Añade tu comentario (opcional) Enviar nota Imágenes 2 de 2BELLEZA. La ilustración de la contratapa de Florencia Pastorella plantea una visión disruptiva de la masculinidad hegemónica.
Etiquetado como:Revista ClítorisAunque no se admite “feminista”, Patricia Breccia es la madrina de Clítoris, una revista que asoma entre las pilas de cómics de aventuras y superhéroes que, casi por definición, tienen dos características invariables: sus creadores suelen ser hombres y la representación que hacen de las mujeres –desde el guión al trazo de su silueta– es sexista. Así lo comprobó Mariela Acevedo, directora de la revista, a medida que avanzaba en su investigación académica sobre la mítica Fierro y la mirada que la publicación del cómic local le dedicaba a su género. “La revista más importante tiene una connotación muy masculina hasta en el nombre: la idea de los fierros, las armas, los autos, el Martín Fierro…”, reflexiona.

Del tono ocurrente y desdramatizado de los stencils que vieron nacer en marchas feministas, como el de “ninguna mujer nace para puta”, surgió el juego de palabras que le dio nombre al proyecto editorial. “De pensar en la palabra clítoris y la idea de placer, llegamos a: ‘buscá tu clítoris’ o ‘encontrá tu clítoris en el quiosco’. Era divertido jugar con los slogans”, relata Acevedo, que lidera la revista que tiene a Hernán Bayón, un hombre, como editor. La redacción se completa con Romina Rodríguez, estudiante de sociología, experta en historia del movimiento anarco-feminista; Ernestina Arias, periodista y fotógrafa de ANRed que le da un perfil social al proyecto y las responsables del área visual: Florencia Pastorella y Paula Martínez.

A la entrevista a Patricia Breccia publicada en el número cero de Clítoris, ganadora del certamen Abelardo Castillo de revistas culturales, se le suman trabajos de historietistas como la mexicana Cintia Bolio, la colombiana residente en España Nani Mosquera, Aniel (una transexual que cuenta el proceso de adaptación a su feminidad en una tira), artículos sobre anarquismo, un ensayo del prócer Alan Moore, entre otras lecturas y viñetas. Y aunque una convocatoria es manifiestamente abierta, tiene sus dificultades.

¿Existen suficientes historietistas que coincidan con su planteo teórico?

Mariela Acevedo: Sí, pero a muchas hay que “venderles” la revista. El campo es bastante reducido, se conocen todos, y algunas dijeron que no, que no querían ser Maitena: “Quiero desmarcarme de mi cuestión de género, que no se fijen que soy mujer”. Esa fue la respuesta de las historietistas más jóvenes, porque las que tienen más experiencia en el campo y lo han sufrido, nos dijeron que sí.

Hernán Bayón: La idea también es darle espacio a otras voces que tengan una mirada feminista. Alan Moore, uno de los grandes que revolucionó la historia del cómic con Watchmen, V de Vendetta, justamente rompe con los clichés del mundillo de los superhéroes. En este artículo da cuenta de la representación de las superheroínas en el cómic, con una mirada muy crítica al machismo.

Romina Rodríguez: Y la necesidad de articular en un medio las experiencias propias con las experiencias activistas y repensarnos en la historia. No solamente las mujeres porque los cuerpos pueden variar, y también poner en palabras las experiencias que no son visibles, que no se muestran en ningún lado porque están muy corridas de la experiencia femenina hegemónica.

¿La representación de la mujer en la historieta tiene más que ver con el trazo, con el diseño de la figura femenina o el lugar se le da en el guión?

Hernán Bayón: Todo está integrado, desde el lugar que tuvo la mujer en los inicios del cómic hasta la forma de estilización de su cuerpo y el discurso que tiene como heroína: marcan un lugar machista. La presencia de la mujer en la historieta es relativamente nueva, ya que en sus inicios estuvo hegemonizada por Batman, Superman y recién en la década del 60 comenzaron las mujeres a tener más importancia como súper heroínas, aun desde una mirada masculina.

Mariela Acevedo: Por un lado, la socialización de las mujeres es diferente y no se ha promovido su entrada en el mundo público, así sea en el cómic, el cine o la cultura en general. Cuando lograron entrar –como estas historietistas que nos dijeron que no– pusieron en juego estrategias de supervivencia, como reproducir un discurso machista, sexista, las que dicen “nosotras hablamos de cosas de mujeres: depilación, dieta y belleza”. Nosotros, en cambio, queremos hablar de violencia, de derecho al aborto, de reparto de las tareas en el hogar, de placer, de posibilidad de generar nuevos discursos en relación a las mujeres. En las historietas, aunque no sean feministas, tienen que ver con la experiencia corporal de ser mujer en el mundo.

Las minas de Altuna y las alteradas

De curvas pronunciadas, labios carnosos –“como si fueran de goma”, dice Patricia Breccia– las mujeres que dibuja Horacio Altuna son el parámetro del punto de vista masculino puesto en la mujer. “Las minas que yo dibujo parece que tienen frío a veces. Están desnudas pero la actitud corporal es diferente, son eróticos, pero tienen otra mirada”, completa la historietista en la entrevista de Clítoris.

Mariela Acevedo: Maitena, antes de hacer Mujeres alteradas hacía Coramina, un cómic con mujeres muy reales, y La fiera, que era una especie de sexópata. Después hizo El langa, que era maravilloso, que mostraba a un tipo que se agrandaba en la oficina con las mujeres y en realidad no ganaba nada. Era una manera de mostrar el sexo masculino muy crítica.

¿Y qué le pasó a Maitena?

Mariela Acevedo: Ella lo explica en una entrevista, que era complicado meter el trabajo acá: “Si sos mujer y escribís de sexo, sos una reventada”. Esto en los 80. Y comenzó a hacer algo más inocente, trabajar para afuera y como cada vez le pedían cosas más eróticas, luego se dedicó a la ilustración. Hasta que le llegó la propuesta de Para Ti de hacer algo de ese estilo. Para mí es una reproducción de un discurso.

Romina Rodríguez: Aunque todos los discursos pueden tener una lectura resistente, incluso Anteojito.

Hernán Bayón: Se transparentan los discursos que están circulando. En este sentido, cuando ves una heroína súper curvilínea responde a un ideal de belleza machista, o la mujer que es rescatada desde el lugar frágil por el superhéroe, o la mujer estilizada que tiene un discurso machista como en Clara de noche, que da mucha tela para cortar. Tiene que ver con la erótica de los cómics, donde el deseo de la mujer está siempre desde el lugar del hombre.

Mariela Acevedo: Hay dos tipos de mujeres en el cómic tradicional: está La Eulogia (de Fontanarrosa) o la chica Altuna, la madre castradora o la puta. Y en Clara de noche, justamente, se ve eso: la mujer de la casa que es la reproductora, madre y esposa, y la mujer sexual. Y Clara de noche sintetiza ahí una cosa interesante, que es la maternidad, porque ella es madre. Lo que está ahí es la mirada masculina.

En el cómic se ponen a circular los discursos de manera más inmediata, porque opera otra mediación, que en la literatura por ejemplo. ¿Qué sucede con las cosas que están cambiando como el casamiento igualitario y DNI para transexuales?

Hernán Bayón: Hay un primer paso pero todavía falta. Porque en la intimidad se busca a la puta y la madre en el mismo lugar y al mismo tiempo se sanciona a la mujer como puta en la esfera social. Se da una contradicción: pueden circular y aceptarse muchos discursos pero las prácticas son importantes. No hay que quedarse en la teoría o con ciertos logros; hay que hacer un cambio de la práctica discursiva mucho más profundo.

Mariela Acevedo: En primer lugar, hay avances a nivel legal y a nivel de conciencia –vos hablás hoy con una persona que hace 10 años te decía una brutalidad y no se daba cuenta, y ahora lo piensa; lo que te está diciendo no es lo que realmente piensa pero sabe que lo que realmente piensa está mal, y se lo guarda– pero vos ves los discursos en la televisión y parece que no hubiera cambiado absolutamente nada. A nivel simbólico, atrasamos: ponés la tele y las publicidades son nefastas, la programación es nefasta y vos te das cuenta que realmente estamos avanzando.

¿Eso es una cuestión de tiempo o que circulen más otros discursos?

Mariela Acevedo: Es una cuestión de democratización de los medios. Necesitamos nuevas voces, nuevos canales. No es que “está mal que digan esas cosas”, que las sigan diciendo, pero que haya contrapeso, oportunidad de oír otros discursos, de ver otras cosas, otras mujeres, otras personas: que haya diversidad.

¿Cómo se piensan como un medio de comunicación y al mismo tiempo desde una postura que alienta el prejuicio, como es la feminista?

Romina Rodríguez: El feminismo no es un pensamiento estancando ni uno solo, y el desafío es hacer que la otra persona revise ese prejuicio. Cada uno se puede apropiar del feminismo de la manera que le plazca. Cuando decís feminista a veces te dicen: “¿Qué, querés matar a todos los varones?” Discutámoslo. Hay que empezar a hacernos cargo de que esa palabra, al igual que clítoris, provoca algo.

Hernán Bayón: Clítoris es un lugar de encuentro de discursos disruptivos que buscan crear otras formas de representación y nuevas formas de socializar otros discursos que están circulando y que están empezando a ser visibles.

Mariela Acevedo: Por un lado buscamos a los lectores de historietas que no son feministas (porque se formaron leyendo historietas) y por otro a las feministas que no leen historietas (porque son sexistas), así que tenemos que construir, que se crucen los públicos. La idea es que sea accesible, no solo de teoría, para los que no están tan en contacto con las teorías de género. El humor gráfico te entra con una sonrisa, hace que el feminismo no sea esa cuestión de denuncia constante –que es verdad que hay que hacerlas, hay cosas gravísimas– porque estás hablando de violencia.

La pata social

Ernestina Arias: Clítoris es una puerta más que se le abre a mucha gente para ese cambio cultural y mental, esa perspectiva nueva que se le puede dar a un montón de temas y abordajes que desde los medios masivos les está vedada, porque se les ofrece como un producto terminado sobre determinado pensamiento y ese es el modelo a seguir. Trabajo en varios barrios y ahora con adolescentes en Merlo, en proyectos de radio, boletines, comunicación, y es eso lo que ellos tienen en primera instancia de consumo: lo que te dice un medio masivo sobre la estética, la belleza, las relaciones, el querer ser, el querer pertenecer. Son adolescentes y están en una etapa de construcción de su ser, su identidad que los va a marcar de por vida.

Mariela Acevedo: Bueno, la historieta es un medio accesible, democrático, económico para los lectores: por pocos pesos te comprás una revista de historietas. Pero es muy copado como medio para hacer cosas, porque para producir una historieta necesitás hoja, papel, tinta, un escáner y listo. En ese sentido es mucho más democrática que hacer un corto, que necesitás actores, vestuario, locaciones: plata. Contar una historia gráfica es accesible y seductor, no es un panfleto, no te estoy tirando feminismo en grandes dosis.

Ernestina Arias: No solamente a nivel discursivo significa una ruptura, establecer algo nuevo, sino que eso tiene que ir acompañado de una práctica, que tiene que ver con la inserción en muchos lugares donde cualquier espacio cultural les está vedado. Son chicos y chicas que no van a venir a ver una obra teatral, no van a ciertos recitales: tienen un montón de necesidades previas que satisfacer para poder estar en un ámbito de discusión un poco más amplio. Entonces, la propuesta de que se apropien de la herramienta, este movimiento lo ha tomado desde hace tiempo y lo está trabajando en diferentes barrios.

Romina Rodríguez: Cuando llega la propuesta, lo pensé como una herramienta política en el amplio sentido de la palabra que puede potenciar muchos cambios individuales como colectivos. Es mucho más que una revista de historietas

¿No creen que los discursos contrarios al feminismo, por sutiles, son más efectivos?

Mariela Acevedo: Son las distintas apropiaciones. Por ejemplo, Karina Mazzoco dice “las mujeres nos levantamos y luchamos contra las arrugas”, y no puedo creer que utilicen el discurso feminista de liberación para decir que luchamos contra las arrugas. Todos los discursos son apropiados, lavados, resignificados y te los venden como si fuera lo que necesitás.

Hernán Bayón: Lo ideológico funciona en diferentes niveles. El lugar común activa una cosa muy fuerte que de alguna manera es estructural a ese discurso ya hegemónico, que clausura la posibilidad de lecturas y deja una sola lectura como válida. Es muy difícil de desarticular y actúa en muchos niveles, desde la sutileza y la no sutileza también.

Mariela Acevedo: Cuando hacen una reseña o crítica, si se trata de una historietista, dicen: “tiene la mirada femenina de la política, de la aventura”… Y cuando vas a las historietas hechas por varones y tienen una mirada marcadamente masculina y eso es invisible. No son sutiles, son marcadamente masculinos lo que pasa es que son norma. Se establecen como norma y entonces la mirada diferente es la mirada femenina. Ignacio Minaverry es un autor que está publicando ahora en la Fierro la historia de Dora, un personaje femenino muy interesante que es una caza nazis, y en una entrevista cuenta que a él le pasaba que lo confundían con una mujer.

Hernán Bayón: En la literatura también los personajes más complejos son los más interesantes, como Anna Karenina, una mujer que sigue su deseo. Pero es algo que se puede volver en contra cuando el sistema se apropia de discursos, y aparece una literatura femenina, un montón de autoras y en la tapa del libro la foto de una terraza con la ropa secándose.

Mariela Acevedo: Patricia Breccia lo cuenta en la entrevista: cuando presentaba trabajos, lo escuchó una vez a Crist decirle a Cascioli en una bienal en Córdoba “esta mujer dibuja como los dioses porque dibuja como un tipo”. Bueno, eran los 80…

Romina Rodríguez: ¡Pero no la podían ver a ella como ella misma!

Mariela Acevedo: La alternativa era “dibuja como una mina”, y cuando dicen “dibuja como una mina” quieren decir que dibuja mal